Finding the code for a ‘hidden’ function in R

If you want to understand what a certain function is doing, or you want to adapt it, you can type in the function without bracket on the command line. However, sometimes functions are ‘hidden’.

You can use methods(function), which will give you the methods for that function (see ?methods for more detailed information). Take for example the kruskal.test.


function (x, ...)
<environment: namespace:stats>

Next, if we type:


[1] kruskal.test.default* kruskal.test.formula*
Non-visible functions are asterisked

Thus, there are two methods, kruskal.test.default and kruskal.test.formula. Let’s try the first one:


This gives the underlying code for the kruskal.test.default:

function (x, g, ...)
    if (is.list(x)) {
        if (length(x) < 2L)
            stop("'x' must be a list with at least 2 elements")
        DNAME <- deparse(substitute(x))
        x <- lapply(x, function(u) u <- u[complete.cases(u)])

I am just copying first lines of the code, that leaves something for you to find out ;-). See also this email threat on the R help mailing list, from which I got the example.


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